La revue Viandes et produits carnés

La revue française de la recherche en viandes et produits carnés  ISSN  2555-8560

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Perception of artificial “meat” by French consumers according to their diet

The culture of muscle cells for food purposes, so-called artificial "meat" by its advocates, is announced by them as likely to meet the growing demand for animal protein without the disadvantages of animal husbandry, but it arouses divergent opinions among consumers. This study aims to understand the feelings of 118 consumers according to their diets. Regular meat consumers are more favorable to this technology than vegetarians and vegans whose convictions prevent them from tasting artificial "meat" and who perceive the consumption of this product as a step backwards. This technology raises questions about its possible undesirable health effects (41% of respondents). About 30% of respondents do not believe in the quality of this product. However, this product arouses curiosity, with the majority of respondents (80%) wanting to try this novel product, as long as there is an affordable selling price. Also, for 80% of the people questioned, this product will become widespread more or less quickly depending on the perceptions of consumers because the mentalities of the French are evolving. However, no consensus was reached for the product name "artificial meat". The semantic issue is important and the name of these new products must not mislead the consumer. Products derived from the culture of muscle cells are not perceived as meat.

Meat substitutes: formulations and comparative analysis. Part 2: micronutrient intakes

The nutritional quality of a food is not only assessed by its protein intake and the quality of protein intake, but also by its intake of trace elements. Animal products are the only sources of vitamin B12, apart from pharmaceutical food supplements. The amounts of other B vitamins are much greater in meat products: 4 to 6 times higher for vitamin B1, 2 to 20 times for vitamin B2, 5 to 30 times for vitamin B3, 2 to 12 times for vitamin B5, 2 to 100 times for vitamin B5, as much as 30 times for vitamin B6. Less markedly, the mineral content is also higher for cooked meat or cooked meat products compared to a ready-to-eat vegetable analogue: from 2 to 9 times more zinc in meat products than in analogues and vegetarian dish sources of protein, and up to 3 times more for iron. The quantity is not the only criterion to consider. The bioavailability of Iron and magnesium is lower in plant products. These minerals, however, are well assimilated during the consumption of meat products. The efficiency of iron absorption during the consumption of meat products is partly linked to the form of the ion (ferric or ferrous iron, or heme iron, i.e. associated with hemoglobin or myoglobin) and the absence of complexes such as phenols and phytate present in plants.

Meat substitutes: formulations and comparative analysis. Part 1: protein intake

The nutritional quality of animal products is often overlooked in our consumers' imaginations. Sustainability for example, must take into account sustainability for humans, starting with meeting their nutritional needs as naturally as possible. For starters, the protein intake, in quantity per 100 g of edible food (usually cooked), greatly exceeds those of vegan equivalents, whether they are meat analogues made from vegetable proteins or vegetarian dishes reputed to be sources of protein (chickpeas, hummus, lentils, tofu etc.). In addition, it is clear that animal products are protein sources of high nutritional quality (DIAAS  80) unlike vegetarian equivalents (DIAAS  80). Animal proteins are more easily digestible before the arrival of the food bolus in the large intestine - colon (The DIAAS Digestible Ileon Amino Acid Score is now the only protein quality criterion recognized by the FAO and WHO) and the intake of essential amino acids are more important. The combination of proteins from legumes and cereals, complementary in theory in their contributions of essential amino acids, is not satisfactory, however, for a quality supply for humans (DIAAS <100 very generally).

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