Neurobiological and physiological aspects of the different slaughter techniques

Slaughter with and without stunning: consciousness and induction of unconsciousness (part 1).

Advances in slaughter practices are based on technical improvements but also on our understanding of the neurobiological principles and the physiological reactions caused by the various stunning techniques and bleeding. This review presents our current scientific knowledge, in particular relating to the brain structures involved in consciousness and the various neurobiological and physiological effects caused by stunning and bleeding. Picture-based illustrations of the brain's anatomy are presented to provide a better understanding of the effects of stunning on certain brain structures. This knowledge presented is used to explain phenomena and issues that can be observed in the field, such as the return of signs of consciousness or the presence of paddling or convulsions, in order to understand better the underlying mechanisms.